Phytocannabinoids

Cannabis derived Cannabinoids

“Phytocannabinoids” are a unique group of chemical compounds, that are present in naturally occurring cannabis (Cannabis Sativa). The classical cannabinoids are concentrated in a viscous resin produced in structures known as glandular trichomes. Currently there are 85 different cannabinoids that have been identified and isolated from the Cannabis plant. The most studied cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN).

The classical cannabinoids are derived from their respective 2-carboxylic acids (2-COOH) by decarboxylation (catalyzed by heat, light, or alkaline conditions). Most phytocannabinoids are nearly insoluble in water but are soluble in lipids, alcohols, and other non-polar organic solvents.

Cannabinoids and Their Effects

The main effects from cannabis use are produced in the human body by the specific, membrane-bound cannabinoid receptors called CB1 (found mostly in the brain) and CB2 (mostly in the immune system), to which many of these cannabinoids bind. THC, for example, is used by both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, and its neuroprotective qualities ease pain in most medical marijuana users. The medicinal value of THC is wide-ranging, with new applications being found all the time.

There are more than 85 known cannabinoids on the cannabis plant